Post-traumatic stress disorder

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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that can be caused by a terrifying event. This terrifying event can be caused by experiencing it or witnessing it. PTSD can cause symptoms that may include flashbacks, night terrors and terrible anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.

Most people that go through traumatic events may have temporary difficulty adjusting and coping, but with time and good self-care, they usually get better. If the symptoms get worse, last for months or even years, and interfere with your day-to-day functioning, you may have PTSD.

 

Getting effective treatment after PTSD symptoms develop can be critical to reduce symptoms and improve function.

Symptoms

Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms cam occur within one month of a tragic event, but sometimes symptoms may not appear until years after the event. These symptoms can cause some significant problems in social or work situations and in relationships. They can also interfere with your ability to go about your normal daily tasks.

There are generally four group of symptoms for PTSD : intrusive memories, avoidance, negative changes in thinking and mood, and changes in physical and emotional reactions. Symptoms can vary over time or vary from person to person.

Intrusive memories

Symptoms of intrusive memories may include:

  • Recurrent, unwanted distressing memories of the traumatic event
  • Reliving the traumatic event as if it were happening again (flashbacks)
  • Upsetting dreams or nightmares about the traumatic event
  • Severe emotional distress or physical reactions to something that reminds you of the traumatic eventAvoidance

    Symptoms of avoidance may include:

    • Trying to avoid talking about the traumatic event
    • Avoiding places or activities that remind you of the traumatic event

    Negative changes in thinking and mood

    Symptoms of negative changes in thinking and mood may include:

    • Negative thoughts about yourself, other people or the world
    • Hopelessness about the future
    • Memory problems, including not remembering important aspects of the traumatic event
    • Difficulty maintaining close relationships with coworkers, family, and friends
    • Feeling detached from family, friends, and reality
    • Lack of interest in activities you once enjoyed
    • Difficulty experiencing positive emotions
    • Feeling emotionally numb

    Changes in physical and emotional reactions

    Symptoms of changes in physical and emotional reactions (also called arousal symptoms) may include:

    • Being easily frightened
    • Always anxious for danger
    • Self-destructive behavior, such as drinking too much or driving too fast
    • Trouble sleeping
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Irritability, angry outbursts or aggressive behavior
    • Overwhelming guilt or shame

    Intensity of symptoms

    PTSD symptoms can become more severe over time. Symptoms of PTSD can get worse when you are stressed, or when something reminds of what you went through. For example, you may hear a car backfire and relive combat experiences.

    When to see a doctor

    If you have disturbing thoughts and feelings about a traumatic event for more than a month, if they’re severe, or if you feel you’re having trouble getting your life back under control, talk to your doctor or a mental health professional. Getting treatment as soon as possible can help prevent PTSD symptoms from getting worse.

    If you have suicidal thoughts

    If you or someone you know has suicidal thoughts, get help right away through one or more of these resources:

    • Reach out to a close friend or loved one.
    • Contact a minister, a spiritual leader or someone in your faith community.
    • Call a suicide hotline number — in the United States, call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) to reach a trained counselor. Use that same number and press 1 to reach the Veterans Crisis Line.
    • Make an appointment with your doctor or a mental health professional.

    When to get emergency help

    If you think you may hurt yourself or attempt suicide, call 911 or your local emergency number immediately.

    If you know someone who’s in danger of attempting suicide or has made a suicide attempt, make sure someone stays with that person to keep him or her safe. Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately. Or, if you can do so safely, take the person to the nearest hospital emergency room.

  • Causes

    You can develop post-traumatic stress disorder when you go through, see or learn about an event involving actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violation.

    Doctors aren’t sure why some people get PTSD. As with most mental health problems, PTSD is probably caused by a complex mix of:

    • Stressful experiences, including the amount and severity of trauma you’ve gone through in your life
    • Inherited mental health risks, such as a family history of anxiety and depression
    • Inherited features of your personality — often called your temperament
    • The way your brain regulates the chemicals and hormones your body releases in response to stress

    Risk factors

    People of all ages can have post-traumatic stress disorder. However, some factors may make you more likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic event, such as:

    • Experiencing intense or long-lasting trauma
    • Having experienced other trauma earlier in life, such as childhood abuse
    • Having a job that increases your risk of being exposed to traumatic events, such as military personnel and first responders
    • Having other mental health problems, such as anxiety or depression
    • Having problems with substance misuse, such as excess drinking or drug use
    • Lacking a good support system of family and friends
    • Having blood relatives with mental health problems, including anxiety or depression

    Kinds of traumatic events

    The most common events leading to the development of PTSD include:

    • Combat exposure
    • Childhood physical abuse
    • Sexual violence
    • Physical assault
    • Being threatened with a weapon
    • An accident

    Many other traumatic events also can lead to PTSD, such as fire, natural disaster, mugging, robbery, plane crash, torture, kidnapping, life-threatening medical diagnosis, terrorist attack, and other extreme or life-threatening events.

    Complications

    Post-traumatic stress disorder can disrupt your whole life ― your job, your relationships, your health and your enjoyment of everyday activities.

    Having PTSD may also increase your risk of other mental health problems, such as:

    • Depression and anxiety
    • Issues with drugs or alcohol use
    • Eating disorders
    • Suicidal thoughts and actions

    Prevention

    After surviving a traumatic event, many people have PTSD-like symptoms at first, such as being unable to stop thinking about what’s happened. Fear, anxiety, anger, depression, guilt — all are common reactions to trauma. However, the majority of people exposed to trauma do not develop long-term post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Getting timely help and support may prevent normal stress reactions from getting worse and developing into PTSD. This may mean turning to family and friends who will listen and offer comfort. It may mean seeking out a mental health professional for a brief course of therapy. Some people may also find it helpful to turn to their faith community.

    Support from others also may help prevent you from turning to unhealthy coping methods, such as misuse of alcohol or drugs.

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